FB IPO of 2012. The underwriting syndicate, headed by Morgan Stanley MSagreed with Facebook, Inc. to purchase 421 million shares at 38 per share, less a 1. 1 underwriting fee. However, the syndicate sold at least 484 million shares to clients 15 above the initial allocation, effectively creating a short position of 63 million shares. If Facebook shares had traded above the 38 IPO price shortly after listing, the underwriting syndicate would ve exercised the greenshoe option to buy the 63 million shares from Facebook at 38 to cover their short position and avoid having to repurchase the shares at a higher price in the market.
However, because Facebook s shares declined below the IPO price soon after it commenced trading, the underwriting syndicate covered their short position without exercising the greenshoe option at or around 38 to stabilize the price and defend it from steeper falls. What is FPSO. Here is everything you need to know about FPSO. Floating Production Storage and Offloading is a core element of the oil gas extraction and refinement process.
Guide to FPSO Floating Production Storage and Offloading. These vessels are used extensively by the offshore industry and have become one of the primary methods of oil and gas processing and storage. At its core, an FPSO facilitates the processing and storage of oil and gas at sea. It stands for floating production storage and offloading FPSO. As its name suggests, an FPSO is a floating vessel that acts as a mobile offshore production and storage facility.
They are typically employed and leased by oil and gas companies. The vessels themselves are equipped with processing equipment for the separation, storage and offloading of oil and gas that comes from sub-sea oil wells or platforms. When oil and gas is processed, it is safely stored in the FPSO until it can be offloaded onto a tanker or a pipeline for transportation ashore.
The first FPSO was a converted oil tanker, built by Shell in 1977. Before the time of FPSOs, oil and gas extraction was more difficult and inefficient. Origins of FPSO. Companies were only able to extract oil and gas from shallow fields, no more than a water depth of 50 metres. Oil and gas had to be transported to land via a subsea pipeline, which is economically unviable at water depths more than several hundred metres and in instances where the seabed oil and gas fields are hundreds of miles away from the shore.
SEE ALSO Introduction to the Oil and Gas Industry Oil and gas awaiting transport was stored in tankers called floating storage and offload units FSO. However, FSOs can t process oil and gas, which is where the FPSO comes in. FSOs were used to store extracted hydrocarbons a mixture of oil, gas and water and transport it from remote locations such as distant seabeds. FPSO definition. As onshore oil discoveries continue to decline, FPSOs will become increasingly more vital for the oil and gas industry.
There are more than 200 FPSOs today operating around the globe. They re less expensive than traditional offshore oil and gas platforms, more flexible, safer, and time-efficient. Production The P in FPSO is what separates these vessels from FSOs. Here is a breakdown of the FPSO acronym. Production refers to the processing of oil and gas. Hydrocarbons are produced in seabed wells and this is transported to the FPSO via flowlines and risers. The hydrocarbons are then separated into oil, gas, water and impurities via the production facilities on the deck of the FPSO.
Flowlines Flowlines carry hydrocarbons directly from seabed well. These can be flexible or rigid. Risers Developed for vertical transportation. This is the section of the line from the seabed to the topside. Storage Once the oil has been processed, it is transferred to cargo tanks in the double hull of the vessel.
Offloading Offloading refers to transferring the gathered contents to additional transfer conduits. FPSO design. Crude oil that is stored in the vessel is then transferred to tankers and pipelines heading ashore. In terms of design, most FPSOs take the form of a supertanker and it can be difficult to distinguish between the two. The defining visual difference of an FPSO is the processing equipment that is stored aboard the vessel s deck. Meanwhile, hydrocarbon storage facilities are typically situated below the hull.
SEE ALSO Guide to shutdowns and turnarounds. Traditional tankers can be converted to an FPSO, giving them an additional element of flexibility. In terms of mooring, the FPSO vessels can be anchored to multiple points on the sea floor, which is called spread morning, or via a central weather vane. In addition to oil and gas processing equipment, FPSOs can be expected to have living quarters to provide accommodation for staff during long periods out at sea, along with control rooms, offices and recreational facilities.
Here is a rundown of the core components of an FPSO vessel. Spread mooring Spread mooring is a traditional mooring system, incorporating a number of mooring lines attached to the hull of the vessel. These mooring lines are anchored onto the seabed. FPSO turret weathervaning The turret is integrated into the FPSOs hull, so the hull weathervanes around the mooring system and the mooring line.
This enables FPSOs to position the vessel favourably against the wind so that it remains bow to wind and weather. A turret mooring system is critical for harsh weather conditions. In essence, the turret enables the FPSO to freely rotate while moored to various locations on the seafloor. Detachable FPSO turret - Many turret systems allow the turret to be disconnected from the vessel, but remain attached to the mooring lines on the seabed.
Gas is either transported to the shore via pipeline or recycled back into the field to increase production. This is particularly useful in situations such as hurricanes and storms, where the vessel needs to react quickly to external hazards. Once the threat has been mitigated, the FPSO can return to the turret, reattach and continue operations. This mooring system is by far the most flexible.
Gas dehydration Gas is often saturated with water vapour, which poses a threat to facilities. Gas dehydration removes the water that is associated with natural gas. Gas compression Natural gas must be treated to conform to commercial standards. Water injection Water injection is a process where water is introduced into a reservoir to encourage oil production. Gas, water and oil separator As water, gas and oil have different densities, they can be separated with gas rising to the top, water on the bottom and oil staying in the middle.
Additional debris such as sand will settle at the bottom. Seawater treatment Sea water treatment involves removing sulfates and other unwanted elements from injection water. Benefits of FPSO. Why have FPSOs become so important for oil gas companies. Conceptually, FPSOs have given oil and gas companies a lot of freedom and versatility with regards to exploration and extraction.
FPSOs enables companies to produce oil gas and explore increasingly remote areas at a cheaper price in comparison to traditional offshore oil and gas production and storage methods. Iqoption developer have six key advantages. Time FPSOs can connect to any pipeline. In addition, when an existing oilfield is depleted, an FPSO can move to another location.
This saves time and money and mitigates the need to build expensive permanent pipelines and facilities. As such, FPSOs make an ideal solution for smaller oil and gas fields that will be depleted in a matter of years. Cost With FPSO, O G companies are not required to build permanent structures like pipelines and piled buildings. FPSOs have the capability to store processed oil and gas and offload it to shuttle tankers for transportation to refineries.
According to Investopedia, a purpose-built FPSO can cost north of 800 million, especially if their production capabilities exceed 250,000 barrels per day BPD. Meanwhile, a traditional offshore oil platform can cost up to 650 million. While the initial cost of an FPSO is slightly higher, FPSOs prove to be more cost-effective in the long run. The cost of a traditional offshore oil platform can skyrocket when other expenditures are taken into account, such as maintenance, well completion costs and platform decommissioning costs.
Safety FPSOs can be disconnected from the pipelines and oil wells they are moored to. This makes FPSOs a safer option in areas with severe weather conditions. Convenience Oil producers can lease the vessels, giving oil and gas companies greater flexibility over their assets ensuring they can react to market forces. An oil and gas producer can conceivably lease as many or as little FPSOs as they want.
This kind of flexibility isn t feasible with fixed assets which take years to build and finance. More viable fields - Some oil and gas fields lack commercial viability due to weather hazards, the distance to the shore or the cost-inefficiency of building and maintaining traditional infrastructure. This not only saves costs but it bridges the gap between small and large oil and gas organisations, ensuring healthier competition.
FPSOs mitigate this by being insensitive to deep-water and adverse weather. Storage capabilities FPSOs can store a substantial amount of oil and gas, increasing the commercial viability of hard to reach fields. Limitations of FPSO. While there are numerous advantages to FPSO, it does have a few limitations. Conversion time Converting a tanker into an FPSO can take up to two years. While this is something to consider, it is still substantially faster than building a pipeline.
Self-competition Companies may find that they are competing with their own pipeline-based infrastructure. FPSO Recovery Oil Gas projects in 2018 at a glance. When the oil and gas market collapsed in 2014, floating production systems weren t spared. Two years went by without a single FPSO order. However, the oil and gas industry is well into its recovery period and optimism continues to grow at a substantial rate.
This has resulted in a positive outlook for many areas of the sector, including floating production systems. Since 2016, 13 FPSOs have been ordered. In 2018 three have already been ordered, with a high possibility for an additional 10 by the end of the year. The gradual recovery that occurred throughout 2017 will likely continue until FPSO orders reach pre-crash levels, as oil prices continue to re-balance.
According to some reports, the number of FPSOs being ordered over the next five years has the potential to be as high as 150. SEE ALSO Five ways redeploying your FPSO will pay dividends As new oil and gas fields are discovered there will always be a demand for FPSO vessels. Here is a breakdown of upcoming projects and new discoveries awaiting exploitation. Initial Cost The upfront cost of an FPSO can be more than the cost of building a large fixed offshore platform. Libra Block Location Offshore Brazil Estimated barrels of oil 12 billion.
Located 110 miles off the coast of Rio de Janeiro in the pre-salt Santos basin in Brazil. The Libra Field may hold an estimated 12 billion barrels of oil making Brazil one of the foremost oil producers. The project is operated by Brazil s state-controlled oil company Petrobras. The Libra oil field is one most significant oil and gas discoveries in recent years. Petrobras announced the first oil the huge field in late 2017. An FPSO Pionero de Libra is operating in the field as an early production system EPS.
The FPSO, which has a capacity of 50,000 barrels of oil, will appraise the field while generating early revenue. Libra will be a major asset in an oil and gas company s portfolio, with 2019 looking to be the year where the oil field begins to kick into gear. At the moment, the oil field is operated by a consortium including Total, Shell, SNOOC, and CNPC. Mero Location Offshore Rio de Janeiro Estimated barrels of oil 3. Situated 180 kilometres off the Rio de Janeiro coast, in ultra-deep waters.
The first FPSO introduced to Mero will be the Guanabara MV31, capable of processing 180,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Johan Catsberg Project Location Offshore Norway Estimated barrels of oil 558 million. With an estimated 558 million barrels of oil, the Johan Catsberg project is a huge opportunity for the Norwegianoil and gas industry. Planned production is expected to start in 2022, with the production period lasting 30 years. The development plan is being headed by Norwegian multinational oil and gas company Statoil, who will be their largest ever FPSO.
Coral South LNG Location Offshore Mozambique Estimated gas reserves 440 billion cubic meters. In late 2017, Singapore s Sembcorp Marine secured the contract to build the hull of the FPSO for the Johan Catsberg Field. With such a sizeable reserve, it is no surprise that the biggest oil and gas players are flocking to get involved in the extraction process.
Eni East Africa holds the highest operating interest, holding a 50 per cent operating interest in the field. In 2017, Eni and ExxonMobil signed an agreement to enable ExxonMobil to acquire a 25 per cent interest in the field. All of the gas that is produced will be purchased by BP who has the right to purchase the Coral South Field gas for the next 20 years. In 2017, Eni along with the Mozambique government sanctioned the production of an advanced floating liquid natural gas vessel FLNG to extract the gas deposits.
Iqoption developer Gas Corridor Location Caspian Sea Estimated gas reserves 400 billion cubic meters. Heralded as an alternative to Russian gas delivery routes for many European Union nations, the Southern Gas Corridor will be watched by the world due to the geopolitical concerns surrounding the huge gas corridor.
The Southern Gas Corridor will require a costly pipeline to Europe that crosses through Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey. Recently, the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev launched the first phase of the Southern Gas Corridor project, which will be supplied with gas from the BP field in the Caspian Sea. Penguins Location North Sea Estimated barrels of oil 80 million. Jointly owned by Shell and ExxonMobil, this field is located east of the Shetland Islands.
First discovered in the 1970s, this field was sanctioned to be redeveloped in 2018, with updated facilities, an additional FPSO and the additional drilling of eight wells. Rosebank Location North Sea Estimated barrels of oil 300 million. Primarily operated by Chevron, this oil field was discovered in 2007 but development plans were stalled due to harsh environmental conditions. Chevron is in the process of relaunching the development of this undeveloped field as they prepare for major commitment in 2018.
Sea Lion Location Offshore Falklands Estimated barrels of oil 242 million. Owned by Rockhopper Exploration, this field was discovered in 2010. There are currently no development plans in place, but Rockhopper expects final investment decision for the 1. 5 oil field will be made in 2018. Additional oil gas fields to watch in 2018. Liza 2,3 and 4 Location Offshore Guyana Estimated barrels of oil 3. Barossa Location Offshore Australia Estimated gas reserves 3.
7 million tonnes Mt of liquefied natural gas. Tortue Location Offshore Gabon Estimated barrels of oil 1 billion. SNE Location Offshore Senegal Estimated barrels of oil 664 million. Browse Location Offshore Australia Estimated gas reserves 4 trillion cubic meters. Related systems Types of floating storage unit. The first oil is expected in 2021. There are a wide array of offshore vessels and design variants of the FPSO. Here is a rundown of the most popular deviations.
Floating production systems FPS FPS is an umbrella term for all variants of floating production systems, including vessels and platforms. Floating storage and offloading FSO An FSO is a simplified version of an FPSO. It has the capability to store and offload oil and gas but it doesn t possess the ability to process it.
Floating storage units FSU Floating storage units to take the form of a large barge in contrast to supertankers that are associated with FPSOs. Simply put, these units are used to store oil and gas in large silos placed on top of the vessel. The key difference with this vessel is the modular drill that is attached to the hull of the ship, giving it more utility than a standard FPSO. Floating drilling production storage and offloading FDPSO This variant is still relatively new, with the first of its kind setting sail in 2009.
With the addition of a drill, an FDPSO can perform nearly all major functions associated with offshore oil and gas production. Floating liquid natural gas vessel FLNG A FLNG is a type of vessel that is more gas-centric. It has all of the apparatus to enable offshore liquidification of natural gas into liquefied natural gas LNG.
Digitization the future of FPSO. Like many other sectors, oil and gas is experiencing the steady digitization of operational procedures to promote efficiency and save costs. However, unlike other industries, oil and gas has been slow to adopt increased connectivity and the technologies associated with the Internet of Things IoT. The rapid conversion of operational technology OT and information technology IT has resulted in increased efficiency through big data, analytics, sensors, the ability to automate highly sensitive tasks and more.
From fleet data to analytics tools and predictive analytics, these technologies can be used to determine success rates, estimations of topside components and more. Going forward, FPSOs will likely have to incorporate more digitisation. Monitoring technologies are far better now than they were many decades ago when most FPSOs were commissioned. The digitization of FSPO has helped prolong the shelf life of many older vessels. Companies now have a better grasp measuring the fatigue of vessels and how each project impacts a vessels service life.
Organisation now has data on hulls, mooring systems, processing equipment and everything in between. Not only does this lead to intact components of a vessel being recycled, but the data produced also leads to more efficient designs. View the webinar on how digitization and security are entwined. The oil and gas landscape is changing fast. Understanding Heart Disease Are You At Risk.
Heart Health Testing Options. What a Better Heart Test Can Tell You Heart Health Testing Options 4myheart Heart Health Terms. There are many different Cardio IQ tests that your doctor can order on your behalf. Learn more about each type of Cardio IQ test by choosing a link below. You and your doctor can then use the results to better understand your heart health and come up with the best treatment plan for you. Lipid Panels. Lipid panels measure the levels of HDL good and LDL bad cholesterol in your blood.
This is the standard test used to determine cholesterol levels. The Martin-Hopkins Calculation for LDL cholesterol LDL-C gives doctors more accurate information with which to manage heart health, and fasting is not required. Quest Diagnostics is the first U. LDL-C Martin-Hopkins Calculation. Lipoprotein Subfractionation. Lipoproteins carry fats and cholesterol. Lipoprotein Subfraction measures the levels and types of lipoproteins in the blood to uncover risks that are linked to heart disease.
In addition to HDL and LDL, it measures total cholesterol, as well as triglycerides another type of lipid. Lipid Subfractionation by Ion Mobility. A high number of small and medium LDL particles indicates an increased risk of heart disease. diagnostic laboratory to measure all LDL-C with this new assessment method. Lipids are directly linked to the risk of heart and blood vessel disease.
A low number of large HDL particles indicates an increased risk of heart disease. These numbers can potentially be improved by lifestyle changes, in conjunction with certain medications such as statins, niacin, or fibrates. This test separates, counts, and measures the particles that make up LDL-C and HDL-C. Some of the lipids carried by apolipoproteins include cholesterol and triglycerides, which makes this test helpful in determining heart disease risk.
This test measures the levels of ApoB, a type of apolipoprotein that clogs arteries. High levels of ApoB are linked to a greater risk of heart disease. Apolipoproteins bind lipids or fats together to carry them through the blood system. The level can be decreased by eating a healthy diet, exercising more, losing weight, and taking certain medications. This test determines your blood levels of Lp aa combination of apolipoproteins and a lipoprotein.
High levels are linked to heart disease and stroke. These levels may be influenced by genetics. Diet and exercise don t seem to help lower them, but certain medications do. Inflammation Biomarkers. When the inner lining of your arteries become damaged by diabetes, smoking, high blood pressure, and lifestyle habits, the cholesterol in your blood enters the artery walls more easily.
This causes injury to the artery walls and they become inflamed. Iqoption developer biomarkers examine the severity of atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease in which cholesterol, fats, and other substances in iqoption developer arteries build up over time to form plaque. F 2 -Isoprostanes F 2 -IsoPs. This test measures the levels of F 2 -IsoPs in your urine.
F 2 -IsoPs are formed from a type of fatty acid found in certain foods. When too many are present, F 2 -IsoPs can cause internal stress, which can lead to the development of heart disease, diabetes, and or cancer. Because F 2 -IsoPs levels can be high at the beginning stages of the disease process, they can provide an early warning sign to your doctor about your risk for disease. F 2 -IsoPs are known as lifestyle markers, and their levels are improved by making better daily lifestyle choices.
Choosing a diet low in red meat and full of fruits and vegetables can help lower F 2 -IsoP levels. Regular exercise also helps. Oxidized LDL OxLDL. This test measures the amount of LDL that is oxidized. LDL the bad cholesterol can become oxidized, or damaged, in the blood stream. Oxidized LDL OxLDL is even more likely than regular LDL to invade and damage the walls of your blood vessels, which leads to heart iqoption developer.
OxLDL levels can be improved by eating a diet low in saturated fat and full of fruits and vegetables. Increasing physical activity and quitting smoking can also help. Understanding your OxLDL levels can help your doctor determine if you are at a higher risk for heart attack or heart disease. If your ADMA SDMA levels are high, it can be a sign of a problem with the health of your blood vessels. Studies have shown that people with elevated levels have a higher risk of heart attacks, stroke, and severe kidney problems.
ADMA SDMA levels can be improved by eating a heart-healthy diet low in sugar and salt, increasing physical activity, and taking medication prescribed by your doctor. This test measures levels of ADMA asymmetric dimethylarginine and SDMA symmetric dimethylarginine. Too much ADMA SDMA can make it hard for your body to produce nitric oxide, which it needs to keep the cells that line your blood vessels healthy.
This test detects the levels of the very small micro elevations of albumin in your urine. Albumin is a protein normally found in your blood, but not normally found in urine. If microalbumin is present in your urine, it may signify that your kidneys and arteries are damaged. Your doctor may want to check your microalbumin level if you have risk factors for heart attack, such as smoking, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, or high cholesterol levels.
Changes to your diet and exercise can help lower your microalbumin levels. hsCRP C-Reactive Protein. C-reactive protein CRP is made by the liver when inflammation is present somewhere in your body. A regular CRP test is often used to help your doctor find out if you have an infection. If you smoke, your doctor can help with programs or products to help you quit. A high sensitivity, or hs, version of the CRP blood test measures extremely low levels of CRP that usual tests can miss.
When this high-sensitivity test detects moderately elevated CRP, it reveals the inflammation associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. hsCRP can be elevated when you have an infection, so be sure any known infection is treated and cured. If you smoke, stop. Studies have shown that very low levels of inflammation in the blood vessels over a long period of time can be a warning sign of more advanced stage of heart disease.
Certain medications and heart-healthy foods have anti-inflammatory benefits as well. Lp-PLA 2 Activity. The Lp-PLA 2 Activity test measures the iqoption developer of the Lp-PLA2 enzyme in the blood. If the Lp-PLA2 Activity rises, it can be a sign of inflammation inside the blood vessel walls. This test can help your doctor understand the health of your blood vessels to determine your risk of a heart attack or stroke.
The Lp-PLA2 level can be decreased by eating a heart-healthy diet, as well as keeping your blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in check. Be sure to see your dentist regularly as dental disease increases the risk of heart attacks. Myeloperoxidase MPO. This test reveals the levels of Myeloperoxidase enzymes. They are present when your blood vessels are inflamed from damage, high cholesterol, or plaque buildup. The MPO test can help your doctor determine if you have inflammation in your blood vessels that may add to your risk of a heart attack.
High MPO levels indicate a higher risk. MPO levels can be lowered by improving blood pressure and blood sugar to normal levels. Lowering your LDL cholesterol can have a positive effect. A Fibrinogren test looks at the levels of this protein in your blood. Fibrinogen is a part of the blood s clotting process that can be elevated due to inflammation. Continually high levels of fibrinogen are linked to increased risk of heart disease.
Fibrinogen levels can be lowered by stopping smoking and losing excessive body fat. Heart failure is a progressive condition of the heart muscle. It occurs when the heart can no longer pump effectively enough to meet the body s needs for oxygen. This test examines levels of NT-proBNP, a hormone released from heart muscle cells in response to stress or strain on the heart. Early identification of high levels may help your doctor decide on a treatment plan to lower the risk of a cardiac event.
ST2 is a specific type of protein. If heart failure has already been diagnosed, an ST2 test monitors its progression. High levels of ST2 may mean heart failure is getting worse and that a change in therapy is needed. This test looks for Galectin-3, a protein that is present when the heart tissue is injured. Doctors may test for Galectin-3 to evaluate both the presence and management of heart failure. Elevated levels can suggest the progression of heart failure.
Metabolic Markers are used to evaluate how all the processes in your body are working together to create the energy your body needs to perform properly. Metabolic Markers. These markers directly impact your heart s health. Hemoglobin A1c. The hemoglobin A1c test is used to help figure out who may have diabetes either now or in the future by measuring blood sugar levels over the past 90 days. High levels may indicate pre-diabetes or diabetes.
Glucose testing measures sugar levels in the blood. High glucose levels may mean you are not responding to the insulin your pancreas is making, so sugar is not getting to the cells where it is needed. Insulin is a hormone that is vital for regulating blood sugar. This test measures the effects of insulin in your system. Constant high levels of insulin increase risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other health conditions. High insulin levels can be improved with proper nutrition, exercise, stress management, or certain medications.
Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma. This test assesses the levels of these fatty acids in the blood. Diabetes is the most common disease that causes irregular glucose levels. A lower omega-3 index is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including sudden cardiac death. Eating foods high in omega-3 fatty acids or taking omega-3 supplements can increase omega-3 fatty acid levels. This blood test is the most accurate way to measure Vitamin D levels.
Low levels are linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. Vitamin D levels may be low for many reasons, such as not enough sun exposure, not eating a balanced diet, and obesity. Taking vitamin D supplements is one way to increase vitamin D levels. Genetic Cardiovascular Markers. These tests provide a look at the genes you are born with and how they may impact your heart health and risk of heart disease.
KIF6 Genotype. This test determines whether you carry the KIF6 gene. People who are KIF6 carriers may have a higher risk of heart disease events such as a heart attack. CYP2C19 Genotype. The CYP2C19 genotype test evaluates how well your body processes the medication clopidogrel Plavix. If you are a poor or intermediate metabolizer, Plavix may be less effective at preventing blood clots. LPA-Aspirin Genotype. The LPA-aspirin genotype test can give insight into your risk of heart disease, as well as your response to aspirin.
If you are an LPA-aspirin carrier, you may have a higher risk of heart disease events such as a heart attack. However, if you are an LPA-aspirin carrier, low-dose aspirin may help reduce your risk. The 4q25-AF genotype test evaluates your risk of atrial fibrillation AF irregular heartbeat and your risk of stroke caused by AF. If you are a 4q25-AF risk carrier, you may have a higher risk of AF and stroke caused by AF. LPA-Intron 25 Genotype. The LPA-Intron 25 genotype test assesses your risk of heart disease.
If you are an LPA-Intron 25 carrier, you may have a higher risk of heart disease. 9p21 Genotype. A high level of NT-proBNP is a warning that the heart is struggling to function properly. The 9p21 genotype test determines risk levels for certain types of heart disease. If you are a 9p21 carrier, you may have a higher risk of a heart attack myocardial infarction before the age of 60 if you are female, and age 50 if you are male, or abdominal aortic aneurysm AAAblocked coronary arteries, or a heart attack at any age.
ApoE Genotype. The ApoE genotype test assesses your risk of heart disease, as well as your response to different amounts of dietary fats. There are six APOE genotypes 2 2, 2 3, 3 3, 2 4, 3 4, and 4 4. If you have the 3 4 or 4 4 genotype, you may have a higher risk of heart disease. 4q25-AF Risk Genotype. Get the books you need with speed and efficiency through consolidated shipping. Global Book Delivery.
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