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In essence, the turret enables the FPSO to freely rotate while moored to various locations on the seafloor. Detachable FPSO turret - Many turret systems allow the turret to be disconnected from the vessel, but remain attached to the mooring lines on the seabed. Gas is either transported to the shore via pipeline or recycled back into the field to increase production. This is particularly useful in situations such as hurricanes and storms, where the vessel needs to react quickly to external hazards.

Once the threat has been mitigated, the FPSO can return to the turret, reattach and continue operations. This mooring system is by far the most flexible. Gas dehydration Gas is often saturated with water vapour, which poses a threat to facilities. Gas dehydration removes the water that is associated with natural gas. Gas compression Natural gas must be treated to conform to commercial standards. Water injection Water injection is a process where water is introduced into a reservoir to encourage oil production.

Gas, water and oil separator As water, gas and oil have different densities, they can be separated with gas rising to the top, water on the bottom and oil staying in the middle. Additional debris such as sand will settle at the bottom. Seawater treatment Sea water treatment involves removing sulfates and other unwanted elements from injection water.

Benefits of FPSO. Why have FPSOs become so important for oil gas companies. Conceptually, FPSOs have given oil and gas companies a lot of freedom and versatility with regards to exploration and extraction. FPSOs enables companies to produce oil gas and explore increasingly remote areas at a cheaper price in comparison to traditional offshore oil and gas production and storage methods. FPSOs have six key advantages. Time FPSOs can connect to any pipeline. In addition, when an existing oilfield is depleted, an FPSO can move to another location.

This saves time and money and mitigates the need to build expensive permanent pipelines and facilities. As such, FPSOs make an ideal solution for smaller oil and gas fields that will be depleted in a matter of years. Cost With FPSO, O G companies are not required to build permanent structures like pipelines and piled buildings. FPSOs have the capability to store processed oil and gas and offload it to shuttle tankers for transportation to refineries.

According to Investopedia, a purpose-built FPSO can cost north of 800 million, especially if their production capabilities exceed 250,000 barrels per day BPD. Meanwhile, a traditional offshore oil platform can cost up to 650 million. While the initial cost of an FPSO is slightly higher, FPSOs prove to be more cost-effective in the long run. The cost of a traditional offshore oil platform can skyrocket when other expenditures are taken into account, such as maintenance, well completion costs and platform decommissioning costs.

Safety FPSOs can be disconnected from the pipelines and oil wells they are moored to. This makes FPSOs a safer option in areas with severe weather conditions. Convenience Oil producers can lease the vessels, giving oil and gas companies greater flexibility over their assets ensuring they can react to market forces. An oil and gas producer can conceivably lease as many or as little FPSOs as they want.

This kind of flexibility isn t feasible with fixed assets which take years to build and finance. More viable fields - Some oil and gas fields lack commercial viability due to weather hazards, the distance to the shore or the cost-inefficiency of building and maintaining traditional infrastructure. This not only saves costs but it bridges the gap between small and large oil and gas organisations, ensuring healthier competition.

FPSOs mitigate this by being insensitive to deep-water and adverse weather. Storage capabilities FPSOs can store a substantial amount of oil and gas, increasing the commercial viability of hard to reach fields. Limitations of FPSO. While there are numerous advantages to FPSO, it does have a few limitations. Conversion time Converting a tanker into an FPSO can take up to two years.

While this is something to consider, it is still substantially faster than building a pipeline. Self-competition Companies may find that they are competing with their own pipeline-based infrastructure. FPSO Recovery Oil Gas projects in 2018 at a glance. When the oil and gas market collapsed in 2014, floating production systems weren t spared. Two years went by without a single FPSO order. However, the oil and gas industry is well into its recovery period and optimism continues to grow at a substantial rate.

This has resulted in a positive outlook for many areas of the sector, including floating production systems. Since 2016, 13 FPSOs have been ordered. In 2018 three have already been ordered, with a high possibility for an additional 10 by the end of the year. The gradual recovery that occurred throughout 2017 will likely continue until FPSO orders reach pre-crash levels, as oil prices continue to re-balance.

According to some reports, the number of FPSOs being ordered over the next five years has the potential to be as high as 150. SEE ALSO Five ways redeploying your FPSO will pay dividends As new oil and gas fields are discovered there will always be a demand for FPSO vessels. Here is a breakdown of upcoming projects and new discoveries awaiting exploitation.

Initial Cost The upfront cost of an FPSO can be more than the cost of building a large fixed offshore platform. Libra Block Location Offshore Brazil Estimated barrels of oil 12 billion. Located 110 miles off the coast of Rio de Janeiro in the pre-salt Santos basin in Brazil. The Libra Field may hold an estimated 12 billion barrels of oil making Brazil one of the foremost oil producers. The project is operated by Brazil s state-controlled oil company Petrobras. The Libra oil field is one most significant oil and gas discoveries in recent years.

Petrobras announced the first oil the huge field in late 2017. An FPSO Pionero de Libra is operating in the field as an early production system EPS. The FPSO, which has a capacity of 50,000 barrels of oil, will appraise the field while generating early revenue. Libra will be a major asset in an oil and gas company s portfolio, with 2019 looking to be the year where the oil field begins to kick into gear. At the moment, the oil field is operated by a consortium including Total, Shell, SNOOC, and CNPC.

Mero Location Offshore Rio de Janeiro Estimated barrels of oil 3. Situated 180 kilometres off the Rio de Janeiro coast, in ultra-deep waters. The first FPSO introduced to Mero will be the Guanabara MV31, capable of processing 180,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Johan Catsberg Project Location Offshore Norway Estimated barrels of oil 558 million. With an estimated 558 million barrels of oil, the Johan Catsberg project is a huge opportunity for the Norwegianoil and gas industry.

Planned production is expected to start in 2022, with the production period lasting 30 years. The development plan is being headed by Norwegian multinational oil and gas company Statoil, who will be their largest ever FPSO. Coral South LNG Location Offshore Mozambique Estimated gas reserves 440 billion cubic meters. In late 2017, Singapore s Sembcorp Marine secured the contract to build the hull of the FPSO for the Johan Catsberg Field. With such a sizeable reserve, it is no surprise that the biggest oil and gas players are flocking to get involved in the extraction process.

Eni East Africa holds the highest operating interest, holding a 50 per cent operating interest in the field. In 2017, Eni and ExxonMobil signed an agreement to enable ExxonMobil to acquire a 25 per cent interest in the field. All of the gas that is produced will be purchased by BP who has the right to purchase the Coral South Field gas for the next 20 years. In 2017, Eni along with the Mozambique government sanctioned the production of an advanced floating liquid natural gas vessel FLNG to extract the gas deposits.

Southern Gas Corridor Location Caspian Sea Estimated gas reserves 400 billion cubic meters. Heralded as an alternative to Russian gas delivery routes for many European Union nations, the Southern Gas Corridor will be watched by the world due to the geopolitical concerns surrounding the huge gas corridor. The Southern Gas Corridor will require a costly pipeline to Europe that crosses through Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey. Recently, the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev launched the first phase of the Southern Gas Corridor project, which will be supplied with gas from the BP field in the Caspian Sea.

Penguins Location North Sea Estimated barrels of oil 80 million. Jointly owned by Shell and ExxonMobil, this field is located east of the Shetland Islands. First discovered in the 1970s, this field was sanctioned to be redeveloped in 2018, with updated facilities, an additional FPSO and the additional drilling of eight wells. Rosebank Location North Sea Estimated barrels of oil 300 million.

Primarily operated by Chevron, this oil field was discovered in 2007 but development plans were stalled due to harsh environmental conditions. Chevron is in the process of relaunching the development of this undeveloped field as they prepare for major commitment in 2018. Sea Lion Location Offshore Falklands Estimated barrels of oil 242 million. Owned by Rockhopper Exploration, this field was discovered in 2010.

There are currently no development plans in place, but Rockhopper expects final investment decision for the 1. 5 oil field will be made in 2018. Additional oil gas fields to watch in 2018. Liza 2,3 and 4 Location Offshore Guyana Estimated barrels of oil 3. Barossa Location Offshore Australia Estimated gas reserves 3. 7 million tonnes Mt of liquefied natural gas. Tortue Location Offshore Gabon Estimated barrels of oil 1 billion. SNE Location Offshore Senegal Estimated barrels of oil 664 million.

Browse Location Offshore Australia Estimated gas reserves 4 trillion cubic meters. Related systems Types of floating storage unit. The first oil is expected in 2021. There are a wide array of offshore vessels and design variants of the FPSO. Here is a rundown of the most popular deviations. Floating production systems FPS FPS is an umbrella term for all variants of floating production systems, including vessels and platforms.

Floating storage and offloading FSO An FSO is a simplified version of an FPSO. It has the capability to store and offload oil and gas but it doesn t possess the ability to process it. Floating storage units FSU Floating storage units to take the form of a large barge in contrast to supertankers that are associated with FPSOs. Simply put, these units are used to store oil and gas in large silos placed on top of the vessel. The key difference with this vessel is the modular drill that is attached to the hull of the ship, giving it more utility than a standard FPSO.

Floating drilling production storage and offloading FDPSO This variant is still relatively new, with the first of its kind setting sail in 2009. With the addition of a drill, an FDPSO can perform nearly all major functions associated with offshore oil and gas production. Floating liquid natural gas vessel FLNG A FLNG is a type of vessel that is more gas-centric.

It has all of the apparatus to enable offshore liquidification of natural gas into liquefied natural gas LNG. Digitization the future of FPSO. Like many other sectors, oil and gas is experiencing the steady digitization of operational procedures to promote efficiency and save costs. However, unlike other industries, oil and gas has been slow to adopt increased connectivity and the technologies associated with the Internet of Things IoT.

The rapid conversion of operational technology OT and information technology IT has resulted in increased efficiency through big data, analytics, sensors, the ability to automate highly sensitive tasks and iq option 5.27 apk. From fleet data to analytics tools and predictive analytics, these technologies can be used to determine success rates, estimations of topside components and more. Going forward, FPSOs will likely have to incorporate more digitisation. Monitoring technologies are far better now than they were many decades ago when most FPSOs were commissioned.

The digitization of FSPO has helped prolong the shelf life of many older vessels. Companies now have a better grasp measuring the fatigue of vessels and how each project impacts a vessels service life. Organisation now has data on hulls, mooring systems, processing equipment and everything in between. Not only does this lead to intact components of a vessel being recycled, but the data produced also leads to more efficient designs. View the webinar on how digitization and security are entwined.

The oil and gas landscape is changing fast. Understanding Heart Disease Are You At Risk. Heart Health Testing Options. What a Better Heart Test Can Tell You Heart Health Testing Options 4myheart Heart Health Terms. There are many different Cardio IQ tests that your doctor can order on your behalf. Learn more about each type of Cardio IQ test by choosing a link below. You and your doctor can then use the results to better understand your heart health and come up with the best treatment plan for you.

Lipid Panels. Lipid panels measure the levels of HDL good and LDL bad cholesterol in your blood. This is the standard test used to determine cholesterol levels. The Martin-Hopkins Calculation for LDL cholesterol LDL-C gives doctors more accurate information with which to manage heart health, and fasting is not required. Quest Diagnostics is the first U. LDL-C Martin-Hopkins Calculation. Lipoprotein Subfractionation.

Lipoproteins carry fats and cholesterol. Lipoprotein Subfraction measures the levels and types of lipoproteins in the blood to uncover risks that are linked to heart disease. In addition to HDL and LDL, it measures total cholesterol, as well as triglycerides another type of lipid. Lipid Subfractionation by Ion Mobility. A high number of small and medium LDL particles indicates an increased risk of heart disease. diagnostic laboratory to measure all LDL-C with this new assessment method.

Lipids are directly linked to the risk of heart and blood vessel disease. A low number of large HDL particles indicates an increased risk of heart disease. These numbers can potentially be improved by lifestyle changes, iq option 5.27 apk conjunction with certain medications such as statins, niacin, or fibrates. This test separates, counts, and measures the particles that make up LDL-C and HDL-C. Some of the lipids carried by apolipoproteins include cholesterol and triglycerides, which makes this test helpful in determining heart disease risk.

This test measures the levels of ApoB, a type of apolipoprotein that clogs arteries. High levels of ApoB are linked to a greater risk of heart disease. Apolipoproteins bind lipids or fats together to carry them through the blood system. The level can be decreased by eating a healthy diet, exercising more, losing weight, and taking certain medications. This test determines your blood levels of Lp aa combination of apolipoproteins and a lipoprotein.

High levels are linked to heart disease and stroke. These levels may be influenced by genetics. Diet and exercise don t seem to help lower them, but certain medications do. Inflammation Biomarkers. When the inner lining of your arteries become damaged by diabetes, smoking, high blood pressure, and lifestyle habits, the cholesterol in your blood enters the artery walls more easily. This causes injury to the artery walls and they become inflamed. Inflammation biomarkers examine the severity of atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease in which cholesterol, fats, and other substances in your arteries build up over time to form plaque.

F 2 -Isoprostanes F 2 -IsoPs. This test measures the levels of F 2 -IsoPs in your urine. F 2 -IsoPs are formed from a type of fatty acid found in certain foods. When too many are present, F 2 -IsoPs can cause internal stress, which can lead to the development of heart disease, diabetes, and or cancer. Because F 2 -IsoPs levels can be high at the beginning stages of the disease process, they can provide an early warning sign to your doctor about your risk for disease.

F 2 -IsoPs are known as lifestyle markers, and their levels are improved by making better daily lifestyle choices. Choosing a diet low in red meat and full of fruits and vegetables can help lower F 2 -IsoP levels. Regular exercise also helps. Oxidized LDL OxLDL. This test measures the amount of LDL that is oxidized. LDL the bad cholesterol can become oxidized, or damaged, in the blood stream. Oxidized LDL OxLDL is even more likely than regular LDL to invade and damage the walls of your blood vessels, which leads to heart disease.

OxLDL levels can be improved by eating a diet low in saturated fat and full of fruits and vegetables. Increasing physical activity and quitting smoking can also help. Understanding your OxLDL levels can help your doctor determine if you are at a higher risk for heart attack or heart disease. If your ADMA SDMA levels are high, it can be a sign of a problem with the health of your blood vessels.

Studies have shown that people with elevated levels have a higher risk of heart attacks, stroke, and severe kidney problems. ADMA SDMA levels can be improved by eating a heart-healthy diet low in sugar and salt, increasing physical activity, and taking medication prescribed by your doctor. This test measures levels of ADMA asymmetric dimethylarginine and SDMA symmetric dimethylarginine.

Too much ADMA SDMA can make it hard for your body to produce nitric oxide, which it needs to keep the cells that line your blood vessels healthy. This test detects the levels of the very small micro elevations of albumin in your urine. Albumin is a protein normally found in your blood, but not normally found in urine. If microalbumin is present in your urine, it may signify that your kidneys and arteries are damaged. Your doctor may want to check your microalbumin level if you have risk factors for heart attack, such as smoking, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, or high cholesterol levels.

Changes to your diet and exercise can help lower your microalbumin levels. hsCRP C-Reactive Protein. C-reactive protein CRP is made by the liver when inflammation is present somewhere in your body. A regular CRP test is often used to help your doctor find out if you have an infection. If you smoke, your doctor can help with programs or products to help you quit. A high sensitivity, or hs, version of the CRP blood test measures extremely low levels of CRP that usual tests can miss.

When this high-sensitivity test detects moderately elevated CRP, it reveals the inflammation associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. hsCRP can be elevated when you have an infection, so be sure any known infection is treated and cured. If you smoke, stop. Studies have shown that very low levels of inflammation in the blood vessels over a long period of time can be a warning sign of more advanced stage of heart disease.

Certain medications and heart-healthy foods have anti-inflammatory benefits as well. Lp-PLA 2 Activity. The Lp-PLA 2 Activity test measures the actions of the Lp-PLA2 enzyme in the blood. If the Lp-PLA2 Activity rises, it can be a sign of inflammation inside the blood vessel walls. This test can help your doctor understand the health of your blood vessels to determine your risk of a heart attack or stroke.

The Lp-PLA2 level can be decreased by eating a heart-healthy diet, as well as keeping your blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in check. Be sure to see your dentist regularly as dental disease increases the risk of heart attacks. Myeloperoxidase MPO. This test reveals the levels of Myeloperoxidase enzymes. They are present when your blood vessels are inflamed from damage, high cholesterol, or plaque buildup. The MPO test can help your doctor determine if you have inflammation in your blood vessels that may add to your risk of a heart attack.

High MPO levels indicate a higher risk. MPO levels can be lowered by improving blood pressure and blood sugar to normal levels. Lowering your LDL cholesterol can have a positive effect. A Fibrinogren test looks at the levels of this protein in your blood. Fibrinogen is a part of the blood s clotting process that can be elevated due to inflammation.

Continually high levels of fibrinogen are linked to increased risk of heart disease. Fibrinogen levels can be lowered by stopping smoking and losing excessive body fat. Heart failure is a progressive condition of the heart muscle. It occurs when the heart can no longer pump effectively enough to meet the body s needs for oxygen. This test examines levels of NT-proBNP, a hormone released from heart muscle cells in response to stress or strain on the heart.

Early identification of high levels may help your doctor decide on a treatment plan to lower the risk of a cardiac event. ST2 is a specific type of protein. If heart failure has already been diagnosed, an ST2 test monitors its progression. High levels of ST2 may mean heart failure is getting worse and that a change in therapy is needed. This test looks for Galectin-3, a protein that is present when the heart tissue is injured. Doctors may test for Galectin-3 to evaluate both the presence and management of heart failure.

Elevated levels can suggest the progression of heart failure. Metabolic Markers are used to evaluate how all the processes in your body are working together to create the energy your body needs to perform properly. Metabolic Markers. These markers directly impact your heart s health. Hemoglobin A1c. The hemoglobin A1c test is used to help figure out who may have diabetes either now or in the future by measuring blood sugar levels over the past 90 days.

High levels may indicate pre-diabetes or diabetes. Glucose testing measures sugar levels in the blood. High glucose levels may mean you are not responding to the insulin your pancreas is making, so sugar is not getting to the cells where it is needed. Insulin is a hormone that is vital for regulating blood sugar. This test measures the effects of insulin in your system. Constant high levels of insulin increase risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other health conditions.

High insulin levels can be improved with proper nutrition, exercise, stress management, or certain medications. Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma. This test assesses the levels of these fatty acids in the blood. Diabetes is the most common disease that causes irregular glucose levels. A lower omega-3 index is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including sudden cardiac death.

Eating foods high in omega-3 fatty acids or taking omega-3 supplements can increase omega-3 fatty acid levels. This blood test is the most accurate way to measure Vitamin D levels. Low levels are linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. Vitamin D levels may be low for many reasons, such as not enough sun exposure, not eating a balanced diet, and obesity.

Taking vitamin D supplements is one way to increase vitamin D levels. Genetic Cardiovascular Markers. These tests provide a look at the genes you are born with and how they may impact your heart health and risk of heart disease. KIF6 Genotype. This test determines whether you carry the KIF6 gene. People who are KIF6 carriers may have a higher risk of heart disease events such as a heart attack. CYP2C19 Genotype. The CYP2C19 genotype test evaluates how well your body processes the medication clopidogrel Plavix.

If you are a poor or intermediate metabolizer, Plavix may be less effective at preventing blood clots. LPA-Aspirin Genotype. The LPA-aspirin genotype test can give insight into your risk of heart disease, as well as your response to aspirin. If you are an LPA-aspirin carrier, you may have a higher risk of heart disease events such as a heart attack. However, if you are an LPA-aspirin carrier, low-dose aspirin may help reduce your risk.

The 4q25-AF genotype test evaluates your risk of atrial fibrillation AF irregular heartbeat and your risk of stroke caused by AF. If you are a 4q25-AF risk carrier, you may have a higher risk of AF and stroke caused by AF. LPA-Intron 25 Genotype. The LPA-Intron 25 genotype test assesses your risk of heart disease. If you are an LPA-Intron 25 carrier, you may have a higher risk of heart disease. 9p21 Genotype. A high level of NT-proBNP is a warning that the heart is struggling to function properly.

The 9p21 genotype test determines risk levels for certain types of heart disease. If you are a 9p21 carrier, you may have a higher risk of a heart attack myocardial infarction before the age of 60 if you are female, and age 50 if you are male, or abdominal aortic aneurysm AAAblocked coronary arteries, or a heart attack at any age.

ApoE Genotype. The ApoE genotype test assesses your risk of heart disease, as well as your response to different amounts of dietary fats. There are six APOE genotypes 2 2, 2 3, 3 3, 2 4, 3 4, and 4 4. If you have the 3 4 or 4 4 genotype, you may have a higher risk of heart disease. 4q25-AF Risk Genotype. Get the books you need with speed and efficiency through consolidated shipping. Global Book Delivery. With over 19 million titles spanning 150 languages, Ingram offers solutions to help international booksellers, library suppliers, and publishers make their story a success story.

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Get iq option 5.27 apk Most Out of Your Metadata. Access the right titles at the right time and stand out in a highly competitive marketplace with enhanced metadata from Ingram. International Book Retail Services. Ip Man is a 2008 Hong Kong biographical martial arts film based on the life of Ip Man, a grandmaster of the martial art Wing Chun and teacher of Bruce Lee. The film focuses on events in Ip s life that supposedly took place in the city of Foshan during the Sino-Japanese War. It is a co-production between China and Hong Kong.

It is the last film to be distributed by Mandarin Films. The film was directed by Wilson Yip, and stars Donnie Yen as Ip Man, with martial arts choreography by Sammo Hung. The supporting cast includes Simon Yam, Lynn Hung, Lam Ka-tung, Xing Yu, Hiroyuki Ikeuchi and Tenma Shibuya. Traditional Cantonese Jip 6 Man 6 Directed by Wilson Yip Produced by Raymond Wong Written by Edmond Wong Chan Tai-lee Starring Donnie Yen Simon Yam Lynn Hung Gordon Lam Fan Siu-wong Xing Yu Chen Zhihui Hiroyuki Ikeuchi Tenma Shibuya Music by Kenji Kawai Cinematography O Sing-Pui Edited by Cheung Ka-fai Distributed by Mandarin Films.

18 December 2008 2008-12-18. 108 minutes Country China Mainland and Hong Kong 1 Language Chinese dialect Cantonese Budget US 11,715,578 2 Box office US 21,888,598. Ip Man is the first film in the Ip Man film series. It premiered in Beijing on 10 December 2008, and was released theatrically in Hong Kong on 19 December 2008, receiving widespread acclaim from critics and audiences. Before the film s release, Raymond Wong announced that there would be a sequel; a second installment titled Ip Man 2was released in April 2010, a third installment titled Ip Man 3 was released in 2015, and Ip Man 4 was released in 2019.

3 Ip Man grossed over US 21 million worldwide, despite not being released in North America and most of Europe. Following its success, the film was nominated for 12 Hong Kong Film Awards, winning awards for Best Film and Best Action Choreography. 1 Pre-production 3. 3 Stunts and choreography 4 Film title controversy 5 Release 5. 1 Reception 5. 1 Fact and fiction 5. 3 Home media 6 Accolades 7 Sequels 8 See also 9 References 10 External links.

In the 1930s, Foshan is a hub of Southern Chinese martial arts, where various schools actively recruit disciples and compete against each other. Although the Wing Chun master Ip Man is the most skilled martial artist in Foshan, he is unassuming and maintains an almost invisible profile. As an independently wealthy man, he feels no need to accept any disciples and instead spends his days training, meeting with friends, and spending time with his family.

However, his wife is often resentful of the time he spends training and discussing martial arts with friends and colleagues. Though not a professional martial artist, Ip is respected in Foshan due to the abilities he displays in friendly, closed-door competitions with local masters. Ip s reputation is further enhanced when he defeats an aggressive, rude, highly skilled Northern Chinese martial arts master, Jin Shanzhao, thus upholding the regional pride of fellow Southern stylists and others in Foshan.

The Japanese invasion in 1937 adversely affects the life of everyone in Foshan. The Imperial Japanese Army claims Ip s house and repurpose it into their Foshan military headquarters. Ip and his family lose their wealth and are forced to move into a decrepit apartment. Desperate to support his family, Ip finds work at a coal mine. The Japanese General Miura, a Karate master, establishes an arena where Chinese martial artists compete with his military trainees. Li Zhao, a former police officer and Ip s acquaintance, now works as an interpreter for the Japanese army.

He offers the martial artists working at the coal mine the chance to earn a bag of rice for every match they win. At first, Ip declines to fight. However, when his friend Lin disappears after taking part in a match, Ip agrees to participate in order to find out what happened to his friend. Ip watches fellow Foshan martial arts practitioner, Master Liu, defeat one karateka, but then Liu requests to fighting three at once and loses.

When Liu attempts to collect the winning bag of rice from the first match, Miura s second in-command, Colonel Sato, shoots and kills him. Miura points Sato s own gun to his head and threatens to personally execute him if he fires in the dojo again. Barely containing his rage, Ip demands a match with ten karateka at once. Despite having not practiced Wing Chun since the Japanese occupied Foshan to conserve energy and thus save food for his familyhe mercilessly defeats them all with a brutal and effective barrage of blows, showing none of the restraint he exhibited in earlier matches.

Ip later visits his friend, Chow Ching-chuen, who owns and runs a cotton mill in Foshan. Chow s son tells Ip that a bandit gang led by Jin is harassing the workers and trying to extort money from them. Ip finally consents to teaching others and trains the workers in Wing Chun for self-defense. When Ip does not return to the arena, Miura grows impatient and sends Sato, along with several soldiers, to track Ip down. Sato sees Ip s wife and approaches her. Ip defends his wife, incapacitating Sato and three other soldiers; however, they are forced to flee their apartment and take a room with Li s family.

When the bandits return to the cotton mill, the workers fight back using the techniques that Ip taught them. Ip himself arrives midway through the battle. He defeats many of the robbers and personally beats Jin, embarrassing him again and warning him to stay away from the workers. Among the gang s number is Yuan, Lin s brother, who vanished after being publicly humiliated by Lin years before much to Lin s regret.

Ip confronts Yuan outside the mill and tells him of his brother s fate. Jin informs Miura of Ip s connection to the cotton mill. His skill arouses the interest of Miura, who wants to learn more about Ip and watch him fight again. Upon seeing the shooting, Ip deduces that Lin was beaten and killed after an earlier fight. The Japanese raid the mill and take Ip who asks Chow to take his wife and son away for protection.

Miura says that Ip s life will be spared if Ip agrees to instruct the Japanese soldiers in Chinese martial arts. Ip refuses and challenges Miura to a match. Miura accepts because of his love for martial arts and to avoid humiliating the Japanese people. The match between Ip and Miura is held in public in Foshan s square. Sato secretly threatens Ip with death if he does not throw the match. At first, the two fighters seem equally matched, but Ip eventually overwhelms Miura, inflicting on him a severe beating through an impeccable defense and relentless and direct blows.

The Chinese crowd cheers Ip, who sees his wife and child returning with Chow. Iq option 5.27 apk at Miura s defeat, Sato shoots Ip in the shoulder, inciting the Chinese crowd who overwhelm the Japanese soldiers. During the scuffle, Li kills Sato with Sato s own gun. Ip is taken away by Chow and his family among the chaos. The epilogue reveals that he survives and escapes with his family to Hong Kong with Chow s help.

There, Ip establishes a Wing Chun school, where his students, including Bruce Lee, come to learn martial arts from him. Donnie Yen as Ip Man, a sole practitioner of the martial art Wing Chun. 4 Lynn Hung as Cheung Wing-sing, Ip Man s wife. 4 Hiroyuki Ikeuchi as General Miura JapaneseRikugun-Taishō Miura ; Sānpǔ jiāngjūna Japanese general and Karate expert. 4 Tenma Shibuya as Colonel Sato JapaneseRikugun-Taisa Satō ; Zuǒténg shàngxiàoa Japanese Colonel and Miura s second in-command.

Gordon Lam as Li Chiu simplified Chinese ; traditional Chinese ; pinyin Lǐ Zhàoa police officer and Ip Man s acquaintance. 4 Fan Siu-wong as Kam Shan-chu ; Jīn Shānzhǎoan aggressive northern martial artist who comes to Foshan to challenge other masters. 4 Simon Yam as Chow Ching-chuen ; Zhōu Qīngquána businessman and Ip Man s close friend. 4 Xing Yu as Master Lam ; Wǔchī Línthe first son of a restaurant owner in Foshan, he is a martial artist and Ip Man s friend.

4 Wong You-nam as Yuan, the second son of a restaurant owner in Foshan who causes a lot of trouble. 4 Calvin Cheng as Chow Kong-yiu, the son of the cotton mill owner, who is interested in learning kung fu. 4 Chen Zhihui as Master Liu ; ; Liào Shīfùa martial arts master. Director Wilson Yip on making Ip Man. The idea of an Ip Man biopic originated in 1998 when Jeffrey Lau and Corey Yuen discussed the idea of making a film based on Bruce Lee s martial arts master.

However, Paragon Films Ltd, the studio producing the proposed film, closed and iq option 5.27 apk project was abandoned. 6 Producer Raymond Wong decided to develop his own Ip Man film with full consent from Ip s sons, and had filmmakers head to Foshan to research Ip s life. Ip Chun, Ip Man s eldest son, along with martial arts master Leo Au-yeung and several other Wing Chun practitioners served as technical consultants for the film.

Principal photography for Ip Man began in March 2008 and ended in August; filming took place in Shanghai, which was used to architecturally recreate Foshan. During filming, conflicts arose between the producers of Ip Man and filmmaker Wong Kar-wai over the film s working title. Wong, who had been developing his own Ip Man biopic, clashed with the producers after learning that their film would be titled Grandmaster Ip Man Chinesewhich was too similar to the title of Wong s film, The Grandmaster.

Ip Man is the first film based on the life of Ip Man. It also marks the fourth film collaboration between director Wilson Yip 4 and actor Donnie Yen. 4 The two also reunite with co-star Simon Yam after 2005 s SPL Sha Po Lang. The screenplay for Ip Man was written by Edmond Wong, 4 the son of film producer Raymond Wong. 4 Wong was the screenwriter of Yip and Yen s second collaboration, 2006 s Dragon Tiger Gate.

Ip Man s eldest son, Ip Chun, his student Leo Au-yeung, 7 and Changquan gold medalist To Yu-hang served as technical consultants for the film, providing advice on the film s story and martial arts choreography. The music for the film was provided by veteran Japanese composer Kenji Kawai, who also served as a composer on the 2006 film, Dragon Tiger Gate which featured Wilson Yip and Donnie Yen as director and actor respectively.

Pre-production Edit. The film was originally conceived in 1998 when Jeffrey Lau and Corey Yuen first thought of the idea of making a film based on Ip Man s life. Donnie Yen signed onto the project, hoping to star as Ip, with Stephen Chow co-starring as Bruce Lee. Yen had signed the contract and received part of the acting fee.

However, the studio producing the film closed, and the project was abandoned. In December 2007, plans to make a new Ip Man film were announced with the filmmakers researching Ip s life in Foshan. Producer Raymond Wong stated that the film would take on a similar look and feel to SPL Sha Po Lang. 9 On 26 February 2008, a press conference for the film was held in Foshan, where it was announced that Wilson Yip would be directing the film, while Yen would appear in the leading role as Ip.

Lynn Hung, Lam Ka-tung, Simon Yam were announced to be appearing in supporting roles, while Sammo Hung would serve as the film s martial arts choreographer. 10 Casting director Zhang Yan Bin spent three months casting actors in various roles for the film. He had completed casting during principal photography in March 2008. Principal photography for Ip Man began in March 2008, and was completed by the end of August.

A majority of the film focuses on events surrounding Ip Man that took place in Foshan in the 1930s and 1940s during the Sino-Japanese War. Since the buildings in modern-day Foshan are architecturally different from the ones of the film s period, the filmmakers decided to shoot the film in Shanghai. Filming first took place in a storeroom in the industrial district of Shanghai.

Having difficulties scouting a cotton factory suitable for shooting, set designers decided to recreate one in the style of the 1930s. They spent weeks transforming an abandoned storeroom into the Zhen Hua Cotton Mill Factory, a 1930s cotton mill factory founded by Ip s friend Chow Ching-chuen played in the film by Simon Yam during the Sino-Japanese War. It was where Ip Man first taught Wing Chun openly to the public. Production designer Kenneth Mak included Western elements in his design, since Foshan, in earlier years, was a unique place where Chinese and Western cultures converged.

Pillars were made to resemble English lampposts, and Western lighting, chairs and tableware were also used. To convey the culture and feel of the time, the buildings were made to look obsolete and worn out. Apart from historical references, Mak also created a glass house which was used in a scene in the film. Stunts and choreography Edit. Director Wilson Yip on Donnie Yen being cast as Ip Man.

The martial arts choreography was designed by Sammo Hung and veteran fight and stunt coordinator Tony Leung Siu-hung. Hung had previously collaborated with Wilson Yip and Donnie Yen as an actor in the 2005 film SPL Sha Po Lang. 14 He was hired as the choreographer mainly because of his experience on the 1978 film Warriors Two and 1982 s The Prodigal Sonboth of which involved Wing Chun. 5 When asked how he would work with Yen to direct the action scenes, Hung replied matter-of-factly, With my mouth.

Yen described the role as the most emotionally and mentally difficult in his career. 5 He spent months preparing for the role by going on a strict diet which consisted of eating one meal a day, training in Wing Chun, and learning more about Ip Man through his two sons. This was all in the hopes of portraying an erudite and cultured Ip Man, as well as bringing out the special traits of Wing Chun.

15 Yen even went as far as to stay in character after filming, wearing his costume and changing his voice and movement patterns. 5 While rehearsing a fight scene, Yen was reportedly injured when an axe wielder accidentally slashed the side of his left eye. 16 Yen also had a masseur on set as he could not raise his right shoulder due to an injury.

Japanese actor Hiroyuki Ikeuchi, who holds a black belt in Judo, found it difficult working under Hung s command. In one scene, he suffered a mild concussion after receiving four consecutive blows from celebrated fight co-ordinator Edward Sweco Chan. 17 Hung later praised Yen and Ikeuchi s performances in the film, even though Ikeuchi was not trained in Chinese martial arts and was not given a lot of complex moves.

Ip Man s original title was controversial. It was disputed when film director Wong Kar-wai announced plans to make his own Ip Man film with Tony Leung Chiu-wai while filming 2046. Wong had planned his own Ip Man biopic titled The Great Masterwith Leung playing the role of Ip. Wong s film, however, had been in development hell, having been announced several years earlier. Producer Raymond Wong wanted to name his film Grandmaster Yip Manwhich bore a resemblance to the title Wong Kar-wai wanted to use for his film.

To settle the dispute, Raymond Wong publicly retracted the film title, stating Actually, all along, we have called our film Ip Manbut our mainland investors said that Yip Man was a great master of his times, so we changed our title to Grandmaster Yip Man out of respect for him. 19 In a more recent interview, Raymond Wong revealed that The Great Master is currently in development. 20 Wong Kar-wai s Ip Man film, titled The Grandmasterwas released on 8 January 2013 in China.

Ip Man premiered in Beijing, China on 10 December 2008, only two days prior to its release in China. 21 22 The film was later released in Malaysia, Singapore and New Zealand on 18 December 2008, one day prior to its release date in Hong Kong. 23 The film was released in the United Kingdom on 2 October 2009. 24 In 2010, Mandarin Films sold North American distribution rights for the film to distributor Well Go USA.

Reception Edit. Prior to its theatrical release in China, Ip Man held a test screening in Beijing on 4 December 2008. The film was highly praised, based on survey sheets returned by the audience. Donnie Yen s portrayal of Ip Man was repeatedly hailed as the year s best performance. High praise was also given to the film s co-stars, Fan Siu-wong, Lam Ka-tung, and Lynn Hung.

26 Ip Man also received positive reactions from film critics. Salon s Andrew O Hehir deemed Ip Man a well-paced and satisfying piece of Chinese-nationalist pulp, referring to the film s heavy anti-Japanese sentiment. Derek Elley of Variety Magazine wrote in his review, Yen, who s taking on real star charisma in middle age, is aces as Ip, with a simple dignity that exactly mirrors the movie s own and a gracefulness in combat that s very different from his trademark whiplash style.

28 Malaysian film critic Lim Chang Moh of The Malay Mail awarded the film three stars out of four, writing that the film was nicely balanced with great martial arts action and an engaging narrative. 29 Lim later placed the film at number six in his list of Top Ten Movies of 2008. 30 Jen Ogilvie of Fortean Times wrote, what carries Ip Man is its dramatic charge it is the story s entanglement in the real horrors of Japanese occupation that pulls the viewer in and builds tension into the fight scenes.

The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 85 of critics have given the film a positive review based on 27 reviews, with an average rating of 6. The site s critics consensus reads, At once beholden to the established conventions of the genre and delightfully subversive of them, Ip Man is one of the most exciting and refreshingly character-driven martial arts films in years. 32 At Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 59 out of 100 based on 9 critics, indicating mixed or average reviews.

Fact and fiction Edit. The film was never meant to be a true biographical film to Ip Man s life, but to broadly touch on the elements from his life. Most of the central turns of the plot are there only for the purpose of making a movie more exciting, including the scenes depicting duels between Ip Man and the Japanese, including Consul General Miura Yoshiakias well as Ip Man encountering hardship during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Ip Man s eldest son, Ip Chun, would have preferred the film to be shot on location in Foshan and noted the mansion was grander than the original one. Ip Man grossed 14,948,157 US 2,188,982 on its opening weekend in China. 36 The film s revenues increased largely by 86. 1grossing 27,812,224 US 4,073,201 to retain second place at the box office. 37 The film experienced a small decrease in revenue in its third weekend, dropping 10.

5 to 24,889,189 3,645,112though remaining in second place. 38 Ip Man continued to decrease in revenue, grossing 19,956,454 US 2,922,695 in its fourth week while staying in second place. 39 After six weeks of theatrical release, Ip Man grossed a total of 93,740,529 US 13,728,640. 40 The film currently remains as China s 13th highest-grossing film of 2008. During its opening weekend in Hong Kong, Ip Man came in first place at the box office, grossing HK 4.

5 million US 579,715. 42 In its second week, Ip Man moved to second place, while grossing HK 6,156,765 US 789,303 with a 36. 2 increase in revenue. 43 The film continued to decrease in revenue in its third week, grossing HK 3,494,366 447,981while staying in second place at the box office. 44 Ip Man moved to third place in its fourth week, grossing HK 2,075,250 266,055. 45 After seven weeks of theatrical release in Hong Kong, Ip Man had grossed HK 25,581,958.

69 US 3,300,847 domestically. 46 The film ranks as the 8th highest-grossing film of 2008. 47 In total, the film had grossed 21,888,598 worldwide, despite not being released in North America and most of Europe. Ip Man was released on DVD and Blu-ray formats on 13 February 2009. Releases include single-disc 49 and two-disc special-edition formats.

50 Features for the special edition include deleted scenes, a making-of featurette, a theatrical trailer, interviews with director Wilson Yip and actor Donnie Yen and featurettes on both Ip Man and Wing Chun martial arts. Ip Man was released on DVD and Blu-ray in the United States on 27 July 2010. 51 A 3-disc Deluxe Collector s Edition was released in China, but only contains Mandarin-dubbed soundtracks and no English subtitles. List of Accolades Award Film Festival Category Recipient s Result Beijing College Student Film Festival Best Actor Donnie Yen Won Favorite Director Wilson Yip Won 2009 Fantasia Festival 53 Technical Achievement Won Best Asian Film Wilson Yip 2nd Place Most Energetic Film Wilson Yip 2nd Place 46th Golden Horse Film Awards 54 Best Action Choreography Sammo Hung, Tony Leung Siu-hung Won 28th Hong Kong Film Awards 55 Best Film Won Best Director Wilson Yip Nominated Best Actor Donnie Yen Nominated Best Supporting Actor Lam Ka-tung Nominated Best Supporting Actor Fan Siu-wong Nominated Best Cinematography O Sing-pui Nominated Best Film Editing Cheung Ka-fai Nominated Best Art Direction Kenneth Mak Nominated Best Action Choreography Sammo Hung, Tony Leung Siu-hung Won Best Sound Design Kinson Tsang Nominated Best Visual Effects Henri Wong Nominated Best Original Score Kenji Kawai Nominated Huabiao Film Awards Outstanding Abroad Actor Donnie Yen Won Outstanding Co-production Film Won Shanghai Film Critics Awards Film of Merit Won Sitges - Catalan International Film Festival Orient Express Award Wilson Yip Won 2nd Iron Elephant Awards 56 Best Picture Won Best Action Choreography Sammo Hung, Tony Leung Siu-hung Won Best Actor Donnie Yen Won.

Ip Man is the first film in a trilogy. Donnie Yen reprised the lead role in the sequel Ip Man 2the second feature film based on the life of Ip Man. The film focuses on Ip s movements in Hong Kong as he attempts to propagate his discipline of Wing Chun martial arts; at the end it also briefly introduces a young Bruce Lee prior to becoming one of Ip s most famed disciples. Ip Man 2 was released theatrically in Hong Kong in late April 2010. Lynn Hung and Fan Siu-wong reprise their supporting roles, while martial arts choreographer Sammo Hung appears as a master of Hung Ga martial arts.

Yen expressed his lack of interest in making a third film, feeling that, Ip Man 2 will incontrovertibly become a classic, bettering the first. 57 Yen later stated that after Ip Man 2he would no longer be involved in a film based on Ip s life. 58 While both Donnie Yen and Raymond Wong were not keen on making a third Ip Man film, director Wilson Yip expressed interest in making one that would focus on the relationship between Ip and Bruce Lee.

While Ip Man 2 very briefly shows Lee as a child, Yip hoped to find a suitable actor to portray Lee as an adult for the third installment. In January 2014, Variety reported that Ip Man 3 would begin shooting in 2015 with Donnie Yen reprising his role as Ip Man and Wilson Yip returning to direct. The film was initially scheduled for a late 2015 release, 60 61 but eventually it was released in early 2016.

Ip Man 4 was released in 2019. Yen again plays the lead role, with Yip as director and Kwok-Kwan Chan as Bruce Lee.

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